Christmas Island and World War 2

Christmas Island has a most interesting history with regards to World War 2. It’s a history that includes, and is not limited to, bombardment, murder, invasion, Japanese collaboration and archeological sites.

I have a number of pages on the topic found in different sections of this website, but as I know many are interested in this particular aspect of the Island’s history, I have also placed them altogether here on the one page. They are as follows:


Ruins

Japanese Ammunition cave including video tour

A small Japanese ruin

World War 2 Japanese pillbox


Historic newspaper articles and stories

1939 – 1945 – A teacup in a storm – Christmas Island in WW2 – Here is a wonderfully riveting article, by Ian Foster, about a very dark and frightening time in Christmas Island’s history.

1940 – World War 2 – A close callRead how Christmas Island was nearly bombarded by the infamous German auxilliary cruiser “Atlantis” (a commerce raider) in October 1940. A close call indeed.

1942 – The invasion of Christmas Island as told by the Japanese.

1942 – Japanese soldiers celebrating their invasion of Christmas Island – A very rare photo.


Documents (click on the PDF icon to read them)

Re-occupation of Christmas Island – reports

From the collection of the National Archives of Australia. NAA: MP1174/1, 1129

This is a most interesting 61 page file spanning the years 1945-1946. In it you can read the reports of the re-occupying forces. It’s a first hand description of the island after the Japanese left towards the end of the WWII. It’s a wonderful snapshot and reading it brings some of the people involved back to life. This is their story in their words. The documents include, surveys of the equipment and sites, health of the islanders, population breakdown, food supplies, labour, education, petitions and complaints, law and order, medical and more.

Collaboration case – James Kang Tian Kwang

From the collection of the National Archives of Australia. NAA: N1, DOXI6/1946

James Kwang (1905-1947) was a collaborator on the island during the Japanese occupation. His actions were reported to the re-occuping forces in 1945. You can read these in the “Re-occupation of Christmas Island – reports” above. In 1946 James Kwang plead guilty to all charges.

Who was Jimmy Kwang?

Jimmy Kang Tian Kwang was probably one of the most intelligent and most unscrupulous employees that the CIP Co. ever had. He was born in Malacca in 1905 and first came to Christmas Island in November 1925. He was a skilled engineer. In the 1930s he was accused of the seduction of a woman, found guilty and fined $100. He was fluent in Malay, eloquent, charming when he needed to be, and wrote near-perfect English.

His motivation for offering his services to the Japanese was simple; he wanted revenge. Early in 1941, Jimmy’s daughter fell ill. He asked the newly arrived CIP Co Medical Officer, Dr J Scott-Clark, to come to his home and examine her. Scott-Clarke allegedly refused, saying, ‘I don’t treat Asians.’ The girl died.

“Suffering through strength: The men who made Christmas Island” by John Hunt, page 188

Thesis – The Archaeology of the Japanese World War II Occupation of Christmas Island

19 Japanese World War II sites have been located on Christmas Island and featured in this thesis by archaeologist Helena van der Riet. It was completed in late 2018 and is a vitally important document for the island. Included in the thesis is a description of each site in great detail along with images and GPS co-ordinates. Helena states, “No systematic survey has been made of the archaeological remains of the Japanese occupation of Christmas Island, and no systematic record or inventory of sites exists … The thesis endeavours to bring together the oral and written histories of the Christmas Island war ordeal and to create an inventory of extant physical remains, this [thesis] sits at the intersection of archaeology and heritage studies.”.